Tuesday, July 16, 2013

Metode Pembelajaran

Menurut Hanson dan Eller (1999: 307) menyatakan bahwa:
An effective teacher typically possesses a repertoire (collection) of teaching methods and an ability to select the appropriate methods for curriculum and student need (Todd learned a valuable lesson about the importance of having a flexible repertoire). Stallworth (1998, p. 17) stresses the need for teachers to systematically review their teaching strategies: “A teacher’s greatest opportunity for growth is systematic inquiry into his or her own teaching and learning”.
Menurut Smaldino, Russel, Heinich, & Molenda (2005: 15-16) yang menyatakan bahwa:
Methods are the procedures of instruction selected to help learners achieve the objectives or to internalize the content or message. The student- directed methods include discrussion, cooperative learning, garning, simulation, discovery, and problem solving.
Menurut Good dan Brophy (1990: 124) yang menyatakan bahwa:
Learning is the term we use to describe the processes involved in changing through experience. It is the process of acquiring relatively permanent change in understanding, attitude, knowledge, information, ability, and skill through experience. Identified five types of learning: (a) Attitudes, internal states that influence personal action choices. (b) Motor skills, organized muscle movements used to accomplish purposeful actions. (c) Information, facts and organized knowledge about the world stored in memory. (d) Intellectual skills, skills that permit learners to carry out symbol-based procedurs (these skills are subdivided into discriminations, concrete concepts, defined concepts, rules, and higher-older rules). (e) Cognitive strategies, strategies that learners bring to bear on their own cognitive processing in order to control their learning or develop solutions to problems.

Menurut McKeachi, et al (1994: 144) yang menyatakan bahwa:
Most effective method of teaching is that it depends on the goal, the student, the content, and the teacher. But the next best answer is, “students teaching other students”. There is a wealth of evidence that peer learning and teaching is extremely effective fo a wide range of goals, content, and students of different levels and personalities.
Menurut Atwi Suparman (2004: 45), metode adalah cara yang di dalam fungsinya merupakan alat untuk mencapai suatu tujuan. Metode pembelajaran berfungsi sebagai cara dalam menyajikan (menguraikan, memberi contoh, dan memberi latihan) isi pelajaran kepada siswa untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu.
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